Mr. Jefferson's Answer to The Friend of Peace (1816)

Note: continuing to share the text of a book printed in 1822 by Philo Pacificus (Noah Worcester) here is a letter from Jefferson, published in The Friend of Peace No. IV:

Jan. 29, 1816


Your letter, bearing the date Oct. 18, 1815, came only to hand the day before yesterday, which is mentioned to explain the date of mine. I have to thank you for the pamphlets accompanying it, to wit, the Solemn Review, the Friend of Peace or Special Interview, and the Friend of Peace No. 2. The first of these I had received through another channel some months ago. I have not read the two last steadily through, because where one assents to propositions as soon as announced it is loss of time to read the arguments in support of them. These numbers discuss the first branch of the causes of war, that is to say, wars undertaken for the point of honor, which you aptly analogize with the act of duelling between individuals, and reason with justice from one to the other. Undoubtedly, this class of wars is in general what you state them to be, “needless, unjust, and inhuman, as well as antichristian.”

The second branch of this subject, to wit, wars undertaken on account of wrong done, and which may be likened to the act of robbery in private life, I presume will be treated of in your future numbers. I observe this class mentioned in the Soemn Review, p. 10, and the question asked, “Is it common for a nation to obtain a redress of wrongs by war?” The answer to this question you will of course draw from history; in the meantime reason will answer it on the grounds of probability, that where the wrong has been done by a weaker nation, the stronger one has generally been able to enforce redress; but where by a stronger nation, redress by war has been neither obtained nor expected by the weaker; on the contrary, the loss has been increased by the expenses of the war in blood and treasure: yet it may have obtained another object equally securing itself from future wrong. It may have retaliated on the aggressor losses of blood and treasure, far beyond the value to him, of the wrong he had committed, and thus have made the advantage of that too dear a purchase to leave him in a disposition to renew the wrong in future; in this way the loss by the war may have secured the weaker nation from loss by future wrong.

The case you state of two boxers, both of whom get a “terrible bruising,” is apposite to this; he of the two who committed the aggression on the other, although victor in the scuffle, yet probably finds his aggression not worth the bruising it has cost him. To explain this by numbers, it is alleged, that Great Britain took from us before the late war near 1000 vessels, and that during the war we took from them 1400; that before the war she seized, and made slaves of 6000 of our citizens, and that in the war we killed more than 6000 of her subjects, and caused her to expend such a sum as amounted to 4 or 5000 guineas a head for every slave she made. She might have purchased the vessels she took for less than the value of those she lost, and have used the 6000 of her men killed for purposes to which she applied ours, have saved the 4 or 5000 guineas a head, and obtained a character of justice, which is as valuable to a nation as to an individual. These conditions therefore leave her without inducement to plunder property, and take men in future on such dear terms.

I neither affirm nor deny the truth of these allegations, nor is their truth material to the question; they are possible and therefore present a case which will claim your consideration in a discussion of the general question: Whether any degree of injury can render a recourse to war expedient? Still less do I propose to draw to myself any part in this discussion. Age, and its effects both on body and mind, has weaned my attention from public subjects, and left me unequal to the labors of correspondence, beyond the limits of my personal concerns. I retire there from the question with a sincere wish, that your writings may have effect in lessening this greatest of human evils, and that you may retain life to enjoy the contemplation of this happy spectacle; and pray you to be assured of my great respect.


Note: only the first paragraph break is found in the original.


Pinter's Provocation: Self Love in America

By Greg Moses

OpEdNews / UrukNet / SamHamod / CounterPunch / Bella Ciao

In homage to the Nobel Prize for Literature, Harold Pinter’s acceptance speech testifies to gifts of inspiration; hints of realms apart within; callings to craft that expose writers to tempestuous solitudes where lines between truth and unreality are not marked out in advance, where things press against each other in duality, both untrue and real at the same time.

That the writer who is driven into realms of edginess and duality can still keep a cold eye on profanity, horror, and outlandish hypocrisy is what Pinter then sets out to prove. His object lesson is the USA. By the time he is finished, we have a perfect ice sculpture of American immanence. One should take 46 minutes to see the words played out to their full and freezing effect.

One thing Pinter does not confess is that the writer sometimes presents a carefully chosen lie that begs to be decried. This prophetic lie is not to be confused with what Pinter calls the political lie that aims to keep truth well buried under phrases like “the American people”. The prophetic lie is what Pinter delivers when he states that “the most saleable commodity” being pushed by the juggernaut of the USA is “self love”.

We know that Pinter is not accepting the USA’s brand of ‘self love’ as self love itself, because for 46 minutes, Pinter practices a kind of self love that would freeze such salesmanship at the doorstep. And we know that any people comforted by the sound of their own name can have no real capacity for self love, because self love must have something to do with self knowledge, but knowledge is precisely what “the American people” do not seek at the sound of their own name.

So when Pinter hisses at the USA for selling ‘self love’ on the global market, he is really provoking us to argue that it’s not real ‘self-love’ that the USA is selling. The problem goes that deep.

On the 13th of December, twelve days before Christmas, the governor of California decides whether to stop the execution of Tookie Williams. Fantasy blurs into reality. The governor could never have been elected without first making himself real to the American people through fantasy projections of obligatory violence, heavily capitalized and mass produced. Fantasy gunslinger, property developer, the state’s executioner in chief. A kind of ‘self love’ is being sold in the governor’s tale. Is this not the kind of ‘self-love’ that Pinter accuses the USA of exporting?

But ask Tookie Williams (as Phil Gasper asked him) where do the problems of real-life gang violence begin and he will tell you the answer is ‘self-hate’. The ‘self-love’ so well commodified in Schwarzenegger (a minstrel name if ever there was one) is minted in a dual economy that also circulates ‘self-hate’. The same fantasy machine that lifts the Aryan upward churns whirlpools for others, tugging them down into gulags for life.

This is Pinter’s provocation: are “the American people” practicing real ‘self-love’? The kind of self love that Martin Luther King, Jr. once called ‘somebodiness’ and that serves as the first condition of empowerment? If it was ‘somebodiness’ we were practicing, wouldn’t we be a little busier about our own freedoms at home? Wouldn’t we care not to be the kind of people who send black ops around the world and then pretend not to see? Isn’t there a kind of self love that demands something from us long before we have to be needled into noticing that we have in fact given up our ‘self-love’ to a commodified political lie?

There is a kind of self-love that answers to the crisis we are in, and I’m sure Pinter knows it, but it is not the kind that he sees us selling, and so he spits the lie right back into our faces. Will we swallow it? If we are selling such a deeply counterfeit value to the world, are we capable of being ashamed about it? In a nation preparing for holy days of shopping, have we lost our capacity to be provoked by Pinter’s allegation of counterfeit love?

Somewhere it is written that we should do unto others as we would have them do unto us. Yet we have long holiday debates about torture and human rights. This is what happens when you turn your self-love into snake oil. Commodify the self-love that you plug into the golden rule, and you forge an ironclad alibi for worldwide scourge. Question is, America, do we have the shame needed to tell Pinter that we recognize his prophetic lie?


Note: special thanks to CounterPunch for updating the above article following the unconscionable execution of Tookie Williams.

Time to Stop Beating Up on Illegal Immigrants

By James C. Harrington
Director, Texas Civil Rights Project

President George W. Bush noticeably stiffened his stance on immigration issues during his recent speaking foray along the border with Mexico. As is his current custom, Bush appeared in non-public forums – a military base in Arizona and with border patrol officials in El Paso, wearing a green agent’s jacket.

Bush talked about “hardening” the border and imprisoning people who enter the country illegally. He shifted away from his earlier talk of regularizing illegal immigration with a guest worker plan. Bush’s trip occurred two weeks after it came to light that soldiers from Ft. Bliss were patrolling the border in Arizona and New Mexico, assisting immigration agents. They dodged the issue of using American military for internal law enforcement by claiming they were gathering intelligence, not arresting anyone – and learning lessons to apply in Iraq.

Bush’s visit also played into the agenda of the Minutemen, who, amid considerable fanfare, have deployed themselves along the same areas visited by the president. The Minutemen want to seal off the border, either with armed presence or an impenetrable 1800-mile fence along the border. Some in Congress support this unworkable idea.

Bush’s change of pace doesn’t help a bit. No matter how much the border is “hardened,” people will continue to cross because their economic need is so great. People simply cannot survive in Mexico. Mexicans receive $1 billion/year from people working in the United States. This is Mexico’s largest source of income – even greater than from its oil and petroleum industry. It’s also easier on Mexico to have some ten million of its people working in the United States, than face possible upheaval there in they were unable to migrate.

The other part of the equation is that the American economy is dependent of inexpensive labor – construction, agriculture, and the service industry, in particular.

The immigration problem will not be resolved until the severe economic dislocation between the United States and Mexico is lessened. All that “hardening” the border does is increase the peril for undocumented people coming into this country, forcing them to walk through the desert’s extreme heat by day and freezing temperatures at night, without water. This year alone, some 500 persons will perish during the trek.

President Bush’s recent pronouncements dodge the phenomenal problems at the heart of illegal immigration. They do nothing to move the United States and Mexico toward really tackling perhaps the greatest economic crises facing the northern hemisphere, made worse by NAFTA. They reflect a lack of political will.

Playing to the anti-immigration and nativist forces in this country doesn’t help. Nor does it help if the president is simply trying to distract attention from other issues, such as Iraq and rapidly declining public support. It would be extremely difficult for Bush to convince his business and political allies to undertake the kind of dramatic economic re-structuring without which there can never be meaningful immigration reform.

Politicians are short-term and short-vision leaders. Their survival generally motivates them, not necessarily the long-term good of the country. Added to this mix is the fact undocumented immigrants don’t form a political constituency since they cannot vote. This makes it easy to scapegoat them.

This country needs to commit itself to real economic structural reform and address illegal immigration in that context. We don’t need political grandstanding and beating up on people whose only crime is to try to survive.


The Texas Civil Rights Project, a nonprofit foundation, promotes civil rights and economic and racial justice throughout Texas.

[Received via email Dec. 8, 2005, posted by permission–gm]

MALDEF Renews Court Challenge to Facilities Crisis

(San Antonio, TEXAS) On behalf of the Edgewood Districts1, MALDEF today filed a Motion for Rehearing with the Texas Supreme Court urging the Court to remand the issue of facilities financing back to the trial court. Because the Supreme Court established a new legal standard for proving a violation of the Texas Constitution with respect to facilities financing, MALDEF argued that the Supreme Court should allow the trial court to conduct further proceedings on the matter.

In its opinion and judgment released on November 22, 2005, the Supreme Court recognized the glaring deficiencies in the Edgewood Districts that force them to place children in overcrowded classrooms, inadequate and unsafe science labs, and classrooms with inadequate heating, air conditioning and ventilation. The Court also recognized that property-poor districts cannot access the funds to address their needs, because the taxpayers in those districts cannot afford tax rates that are as much as twenty times higher than rates in property-rich districts. Despite the overwhelming evidence, the Court stated that the Edgewood Districts also should have presented evidence of similar facilities needs in other districts.

“The Court has never previously required evidence of ‘similar needs’ in other districts, only evidence of needs in the plaintiffs’ own districts and the disproportionate tax burden borne by their taxpayers. Nonetheless, in other far less important cases in which the Supreme Court developed new standards, the Court sent those cases back to the trial court and allowed the plaintiffs to present evidence relevant to the new standards,” said David Hinojosa, MALDEF Staff Attorney and lead counsel for the Edgewood Districts in the case.

He added: “The leadership in this State remains unconcerned and unresponsive to the facilities needs of children in property-poor districts. An efficient educational system, in the constitutional sense or in any other sense, cannot be one in which the children in property-poor districts continue to be subjected to dilapidated classrooms and dangerous learning environments. Texas’s legacy of neglecting the schools for the poor must end now.”

A national nonprofit organization founded in 1968, MALDEF promotes and protects the rights of Latinos through advocacy, community education and outreach, leadership development, higher education scholarships and when necessary, through the legal system.

[Press Release via email Dec. 7, 2005–gm]

New Immigration Proposal Denies Rights, Narrows Focus

(Washington, D.C.) – MALDEF President and General Counsel Ann Marie Tallman announced the Latino civil rights organization’s strong opposition to the enforcement-only immigration legislation introduced by House Judiciary Committee Chairman F. James Sensenbrenner (R-WI).

“The Sensenbrenner bill is more of the enforcement-only approach that has failed American communities, families and businesses over the past decade. It targets individuals who are present here due to labor demands and may be undocumented but are otherwise law-abiding and contributing residents. This ill serves the nation’s economic needs and ignores our country’s immigrant traditions,” said Tallman. “True leadership is needed to tackle this important issue affecting all of us. We call upon the Bush Administration and Congressional leaders to reject this approach and advance comprehensive reform that includes enforcement, an earned path to legalization for individuals to work and live lawfully, and labor law enforcement so that unscrupulous employers do not enjoy economic incentives through the exploitation of immigrant labor.”

Among the many anti-immigrant measures in the Sensenbrenner bill are provisions that would: 1) strip citizenship opportunities that are currently available to legal immigrants; 2) curtail fundamental Due Process rights in immigration proceedings; and 3) make it a criminal offense to remain in the country illegally after entering legally.

In addition, the bill would vastly expand the computer verification of all employees in the United States. “Expanding the so-called Basic Pilot Program will lead to errors and discrimination affecting U.S. citizens and legally authorized workers. It wrongly intrudes into union hiring halls and day laborer centers but does not keep unscrupulous employers from continuing to avoid the system,” observed MALDEF Senior Vice President for Law and Policy John Trasviña.

Eric M. GutiĆ©rrez, Legislative Staff Attorney, noted that the bill not only fails to address core concerns in immigration reform, but at the same time, is both overbroad and dangerously narrow: “The bill limits the rights of legal immigrants while attempting to combat unauthorized immigration; yet it is unduly narrow because it focuses upon enforcement while ignoring the need for programs that would encourage legal immigration and naturalization.”

MALDEF continues to support the bipartisan comprehensive immigration reform bills sponsored by Senators John McCain and Edward Kennedy and Representatives Jim Kolbe, Jeff Flake, and Luis GutiƩrrez. These bills combine tough enforcement with realistic admission policies, have bipartisan support, and are workable.

A national nonprofit organization founded in 1968, MALDEF promotes and protects the rights of Latinos through advocacy, community education and outreach, leadership development, higher education scholarships and when necessary, through the legal system.

[Press Release via email Dec. 7, 2005–gm]

Federal Experts Agreed: Texas Redistricting Discriminates

San Antonio (Texas) – The recent disclosure that political appointees at the U.S. Department of Justice overruled the findings and recommendations of career attorneys that Texas congressional redistricting violated the Voting Rights Act provides more proof that Latino voters’s political strength was diluted in the 2003 redistricting plan.

“The memorandum makes clear that DOJ attorneys who initially reivewed the Texas redistricting plan agreed with MALDEF that it discriminated against Latino voters. Had the political appointees not intervened, the plan would not have gone into effect,” commented Nina Perales, MALDEF Southwest Regional Counsel and lead attorney for the American GI Forum of Texas and other Latino plaintiffs in the Texas redistricting litigation.

“The U.S. Supreme Court can and should take judicial notice of this new information in considering whether to grant a full hearing in our pending appeal,” continued Ms. Perales.

MALDEF filed GI Forum v. Perry, a challenge to the Texas congressional redistricting plan on behalf of Latino voters in 2003. Now consolidated with Session v. Perry, which features claims by African American voters and Democratic incumbents, the case is pending on direct appeal before the U.S. Supreme Court.

A link to the Justice Department memorandum can be found at:

Founded in 1968, MALDEF is a national non-profit, civil rights organization which protects and promotes the civil rights of Latinos through advocacy, community education and outreach, leadership development, higher education scholarships and, when necessary, through the legal system.

MALDEF Press Release via email Dec. 7, 2005–gm